A.D. 225-A.D. 1450
A.D. ca. 225
Roman shipwreck of Cunabara Bay, near Rio De Janeiro, marked by two sets of tumbled heaps of amphorae of this date lying on the sea floor. Specialists in ancient ceramics point to the port of Zilis, Morocco, as the place of origin of the shipment. A similar find of amphorae also on the seabed off Honduras.
Roman ship wrecked off Beverly, Massachusetss, the purser’s chest containing then current coinage of the reigns of four emperors who ruled in the mid-late fourth century; these coins are now being cast ashore by wave action.
A.D. ca. 500
Inscribed ceramic tablet bearing Christian image and Libyan script, buried in Mayan temple at Comalcalco, Mexico, with numerous other Mayan inscriptions.
Christian Celtic traders and monks from Ireland and Hebidean islands reach North America and leave Ogam religious and other texts cut in rock faces and in caves, in various states, notably West Virginia.
Moslem Arab voyages both trans-Pacific and trans-Atlantic, evidenced by Kufi Moslem rock-cut texts, especially in western desert states of North America. Also Arabic nautical, legal, and religious vocabulary acquired by Amerind languages.
Viking Discovery of Greenland; exploration and settlement begins.
Viking discovery, exploration, and settlement of Labrador and Newfoundland (Vinland settlements).
A.D. 1050 on
Vikings introduce cattle and other farm animals into Greenland, which at this era, was partly free from ice. Churches erected at various places and parishes.
Pope Callixtus II raises Greenland to the ecclesiastical status of Bishopric, with a cathedral at Gardar. Viking church tower at Newport, Rhode Island, built about this time.
Christian Viking settlers in Greenland number about 4,000 souls.
West African voyagers present in Caribbean. In earth carbon-dated to this epoch, Smithsonian investigators have found two male African skeletons in the Virgin Islands. African related artifacts found in Mexico probably date to about this time.
A.D. 1206 on
Letters addressed to the Archbishop of Nidaros, Norway, by various Popes, regarding the status of the Greenland Christians and their tithes. Among the extant correspondence in the Vatican Library are letters from Popes Innocent III (A.D. 1206), John XXI (dated 1276), Nicholas II (dated 1279), Martin IV (dated 1282).
Abubakiri, King of Mali, leads two fleets, totaling 400 vessels, to explore the Atlantic, and none returns to Africa.
Thirty Norse explorers in Minnesota attacked by Indians. A record of the event recorded in Middle Norwegian runes on the so-called Kensington runestone (now determined to be genuine after exhaustive research since 1986).
Pope Nicholas V, in a letter addressed to the Church leaders in Norway, gives expression to his concerns at reports that the Christians of Greenland had been attacked by a fleet “from the neighboring shores of the Pagans” (i.e., Labrador), and their homes and churches devastated by fire and sword, leaving only nine parish churches intact.
Basque fishing fleets at about this time active on the North American coast and bringing back to Europe specimens of the tusks of the narwhal for the royal history cabinets.
First voyage of Columbus, with Basque pilots.
Fell, Barry, America B.C.: Ancient Settlers in the New World. Muskogee, OK: Artisan Publishers, 1976, 1989. (Newly Revised and Updated Edition), pp. vii-ix.